This manual was developed to explain the mobilization, transport and attenuation mechanisms of naturallyoccurring arsenic in groundwater at. The trivalent and pentavalent forms are the most common oxidation states. Detections were more common and concentrations generally were higher in the west than in the east. International groundwater resources assessment centre report nr. The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the availability, performance, and cost of arsenic treatment technologies for soil, water, and waste. About 7 percent of the wells sampled contained arsenic at a concentration that.
Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination. Approximately 296 million individuals worldwide are at risk of arsenic toxicity chakrabarti, singh et al. It is now accepted that the major sources of arsenic contamination in the groundwater of bangladesh are geological deposits, and its release occurs through natural processes 12,32,33, although a number of anthropogenic sources e. Under certain conditions, arsenic can be released into groundwater and enter water wells. In rural communities that rely on groundwater for drinking water, the risk from exposure may pose a public health threat, especially when groundwater pumping can increase arsenic solubility.
In surface waters, as contamination can also adversely affect aquatic ecosystems, accumulating in sediments and plants. Development of lowcost technologies for removal of. Organic forms of arsenic are rare in groundwater, so we will ignore them in this discussion. Groundwater concentrations in argentina are reported to range as high as about 15,000. Aug 23, 20 the solubility of arsenic in groundwater aquifers is controlled by a number of hydrologic and geochemical factors. The most common source of arsenic contamination in ground water is the mobilization of naturally occurring arsenic on sediments. While moderate to higher concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater were found in 107 countries chakrabarti, singh et al.
Known aquifer types and sources of contamination are also included. The safe drinking water act requires public water supplies to stay below a maximum contaminant level mcl of 10 parts per billion of arsenic. Nae website arsenic filters for groundwater in bangladesh. Groundwater pumped through familybased tubewells contained a tot al average of 159. Arsenic also can be released into groundwater as a result of. Arsenic is widely distributed throughout the earths crust, most often as arsenic sulfide or as metal arsenates and arsenides.
A 2007 study found that over 7 million people in more. Arsenic contamination was reported as early as 1938. Whether the arsenic is released from these geologic sources into groundwater depends on the chemical form of the arsenic, the geochemical conditions in the aquifer, and the biogeochemical processes that occur. Arsenic exists in oxidation states of 3, 0, 3 arsenite, and 5 arsenate cas no. Yet in many places, populations have little choice but to continue drinking arsenic contaminated water. Most of shallow aquifers depth arsenic as, iron fe and manganese mn. Arsenic occurs naturally in the soil and groundwater in parts of california and is a known carcinogen that may also damage the developing brains of children and cause other health problems. Arsenic is a metalloid which can exist in various allotropes, finding its importance in semiconductors industry, pesticides, insecticides and as well as a wood preservative.
Given the right chemical conditions in the subsurface arsenic can dissolve into ground water used for drinking water. Although, exposure is possible in the following ways. Nov 29, 2016 arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states by alan h. Toxic levels of arsenic have been detected in water supply wells in the united states6 and abroad,7 creating a health risk for a large fraction of the worlds population and a direct, superfunddriven need to monitor and measure arsenic for the effective remediation of waste sites. Proven alternatives for aboveground treatment of arsenic in. Arseniccontaminated groundwater endangers the health of millions of people in southern asia. Arsenic in groundwater may also be the result of contamination caused by hazardous waste or industries that use arsenic. Most of the arsenic found in groundwater is either inorganic asiii mainly as uncharged arsenious acid, or inorganic asv in the form of arsenic acid minus one or two of its protons so with a charge of 1 or 2.
Pdf arsenic in the groundwater environment prasenjit paul. Studies to date in west bengal show that vast areas are contaminated with arsenic in groundwater with concentration 10. Arsenic in groundwater poses ongoing challenge wrrc. The study revealed arsenic concentrations in the groundwaters ranging from 50. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment. For example, a survey of municipal water supplies by the kolkata municipal corporation kmc. Groundwater contamination an overview sciencedirect topics. The usgs studies local and national sources of arsenic to help health officials better manage our water resources. Arsenic arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found in combination with either inorganic or organic substances to form many different compounds. Arsenic contamination of groundwater wiley online books. Arsenic in groundwater cerro gordo county department of public.
Arsenic is widely distributed throughout earths crust, generally as arsenic sulfide or as metal arsenates and arsenides. The maximum contaminant level for total as in potable water has been established as 10. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water has been linked to negative health effects including cancer. Sep 01, 2008 critical evaluation of a simple arsenic removal method for groundwater of bangladesh. The arsenicrich groundwater is mostly restricted to the alluvial aquifers of the ganges delta 3, 6. Unusually high levels have been reported in carbonate spring waters in new zealand, romania, the russian federation and the. Focazio abstract arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. The major sources of as pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of ascontaining minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can.
Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout china science. Dissolved sulfate, which was introduced from the molasses, also fell from. Development of lowcost technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater 103 available gravel gravel size passing 34. Arsenic is a metallike substance found in small amounts in nature. Pdf on sep 1, 2018, john m mcarthur and others published arsenic in groundwater find, read and cite all the research you need on. Arsenic mobility and groundwater extraction in bangladesh. These impacts include, but are not limited to, cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, kidney, nasal passages, liver and prostate usepa, 2001.
Drinking water containing high levels of arsenic may cause health problems. From both the biological and the toxicological points of view, arsenic compounds can be classified into three. Elevated levels of arsenic can be found naturally in groundwater in some areas of illinois. The source of arsenicrich iron oxyhydroxides must therefore lie in the ganges source region. The contaminated areas lie in the vast alluvial plains and delta of the ganges. The california department of public health cdph regulates arsenic as a drinking water. Exposure to inorganic arsenic typically occurs through groundwater usedfor drinking and cooking.
In an effort to provide a focused assessment of risk to arsenic exposure from groundwater. A large source of total arsenic comes from the food we eat. Arsenic mobility and transport through the subsurface is largely controlled by the interaction of groundwater with aquifer sediments. However, most of the arsenic in food is in an organic carboncontaining form whichis much less harmful than the inorganic arsenic. Satinder ahuja, in handbook of water purity and quality, 2009. In india, the geogenic arsenic problem is spread over a large geographical area and arsenic contaminated groundwater has been reported for the states of assam, bihar, chhattisgarh, uttar pradesh, and west bengal chakraborti et al. Arsenic in groundwater igrac international groundwater. Pdf on jan 1, 2018, dipankar chakrabarti and others published arsenic. Critical evaluation of a simple arsenic removal method for groundwater of bangladesh. It is, rather, a brief summary of as pollution in the areas shown in fig. The release of arsenic from geothermal systems into surface and ground waters compromises the use of these waters as drinking water resources.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural andor anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. These compounds occur either naturally or as a result of mining, ore smelting, and industrial use of arsenic. At some sites, the plume of groundwater containing arsenic at concentrations greater than. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in. Development of lowcost technologies for removal of arsenic. Sep 09, 2008 provides a viable reference, describing the stateofknowledge on sources of arsenic contamination in ground water, which affects about 100 million people worldwide. Biological fate describe what happens when arsenic enters the body. Worldwide occurrences of arseniccontaminated groundwater forms and toxicity. Arsenic as causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. Arsenic in groundwater exists primarily as oxy anions representing two oxidation states. Arsenic in new jersey ground water arsenic as is a toxic element that is known to pose a risk of adverse health effects in people who consume water containing it. Some sites that might not have needed groundwater treatment to remove arsenic under the former mcl of 0.
Proven alternatives for aboveground treatment of arsenic. The multivariate factorial kriging results also demonstrated that seawater intrusion slightly affected the increase of arsenic in groundwater, accounting for only 17. Arsenic can also enter water resources through industrial and mining surface runoff that eventually enters groundwater. Arsenic dissolves in water and may be present in groundwater, lakes, and. Arsenite asiii, the reduced form of inorganic arsenic, usually exhibits greater mobility in groundwater than the oxidized form, arsenate asv largely due to the greater attraction of asv to aquifer. Arsenic in groundwater a world problem samsamwater. A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states and limitations in drinkingwatersupply characterizations waterresources investigations report 994279 arsenic in water from 18,850 wells and springs greater than 10 gl 5 to 9. Two hundred villages that had already been identified as having arsenic contaminated tubewells were sur. With contributions from worldrenowned experts in the field, this book explores developments in the transport kinetics, detection, measurement, seasonal cycling, accumulation. Arsenic can have adverse health effects in people who drink water high in arsenic. Api groundwater arsenic manual attenuation of naturallyoccurring arsenic at petroleum impacted sites publication 4761 february 2011 erms austin office 206 e. The degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by aforesaid anthropogenic sources is much less as compared to the natural sources. Drinking water with elevated levels of arsenic is a primary exposure route.
There is wide variability in arsenic concentration over relatively small areas figure 2. It is also present from industrial output, such as burning of arsenic containing compounds, and agriculture waste byproducts. Occurrence and mobility of arsenic in groundwater used for. Arsenic contamination of groundwater affects millions of people in southern asia. Arsenic centers for disease control and prevention.
Arsenic contamination of both surface water and groundwater also is found in many latin american countries, but the full extent of the problem is not yet clear bundschuh et al. A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. It is a highprofile problem due to the use of deep tubewells for water supply in the ganges delta, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. Bangladesh, west bengal, india, and sites in china. Geographical extent of areas contaminated with arsenic is shown on six continental maps figure 1 through 6. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options. Arsenic levels in groundwater 50 20 50 10 20 usgs thesaurus arsenic inlandwaters groundwater iso 19115 topic.
Bhattacharya and others published arsenic in groundwater of india find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. It is also released into the environment by volcanoes and mining processes. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element found in soil and bedrock throughout wisconsin. Andres sanchez, wrrc graduate outreach assistant arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem in many areas of the world, including arizona.
Figure 1 shows the locations of community public groundwater supplies where, utilizing existing treatment, finished water will likely exceed the new standard unless additional treatment is applied. The ironsludge ferric hydroxidewater slurry was either. Longterm exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to increase risks of skin, bladder, lung, liver, colon, and kidney cancer. Naturallyoccurring arsenic may be mobilized into shallow groundwater by inputs of biodegradable organic carbon, including petroleum hydrocarbons.
Arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a serious problem faced by all over. An overview of regions with groundwater containing arsenic in excess of 50 gl is given in appendix 1. Identify the populations most heavily exposed to arsenic.
Arsenic poisoning of bangladesh groundwater nature. Many of the people drinking excessive levels of arsenic are poor andor latino or africanamerican, with a cluster in the san joaquin valley. Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water in most of tazewell county. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater. Arsenic enters water sources through erosion of natural deposits in rocks. Arsenic levels tend to be higher in drinking water that comes from ground sources, such as wells. One exception is in tazewell county, where the tazewell county health department sampled 590 private wells for arsenic in 1985. Longterm exposure to arsenic through drinking contamined water can result in a chronic arsenic poisoning. Arsenic in drinkingwater world health organization. Arsenic dissolves in water and may be present in groundwater, lakes, and rivers. Occurrence in groundwater find, read and cite all the research you need on.
Nov 22, 2002 field injection of molassesamended groundwater produced an initial rise in arsenic concentration fig. Inorganic arsenic compounds are found in soils, sediments, and groundwater. Concentrations of inorganic forms arsenite, as iii and arsenate, as v of arsenic as present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments located in the middle gangetic plain of bihar, india were determined. Arsenic contamination in groundwater bioline international. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of as for drinking purposes. Groundwater contamination of arsenic can occur from various anthropogenic sources such as pesticides, wood preservatives, glass manufacture, and other miscellaneous arsenic uses. In 1997 a project designed to establish the extent of the problem in a sample population was authorized by the government of bangladesh. Longterm exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to increase risks of. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element, but longterm exposure can cause cancer in people. Aquifers in bangladesh are located at a relatively shallow depth to deeper depth bhattacharya et al. Yet in many places, populations have little choice but to continue drinking arsenic contaminated water and in some.
Arsenic levels in groundwater 50 20 50 10 20 in ugl. Oct 14, 2014 the degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by aforesaid anthropogenic sources is much less as compared to the natural sources. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on arsenic exposure and health effects, june 1822, 2000, san diego, california. Provides a viable reference, describing the stateofknowledge on sources of arsenic contamination in ground water, which affects about 100 million people worldwide. Arsenic has become increasingly important in environmental geochemistry because of its significance to human health.1220 282 902 1094 1082 669 1011 575 462 1056 1290 832 1487 1474 1263 720 121 704 490 797 931 1040 403 900 1047 1523 555 761 1497 1276 560 8 386 590 1348 803 1166 610 1119 197 501 508 459