The most common source of arsenic contamination in ground water is the mobilization of naturally occurring arsenic on sediments. Arsenic contamination of groundwater affects millions of people in southern asia. The release of arsenic from geothermal systems into surface and ground waters compromises the use of these waters as drinking water resources. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element, but longterm exposure can cause cancer in people.
Arseniccontaminated groundwater endangers the health of millions of people in southern asia. Arsenic dissolves in water and may be present in groundwater, lakes, and. Pdf on jan 1, 2018, dipankar chakrabarti and others published arsenic. Oct 14, 2014 the degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by aforesaid anthropogenic sources is much less as compared to the natural sources.
About 7 percent of the wells sampled contained arsenic at a concentration that. However, most of the arsenic in food is in an organic carboncontaining form whichis much less harmful than the inorganic arsenic. Arsenic in groundwater a world problem samsamwater. Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water in most of tazewell county. Occurrence and mobility of arsenic in groundwater used for. Under certain conditions, arsenic can be released into groundwater and enter water wells.
Arsenic has become increasingly important in environmental geochemistry because of its significance to human health. The source of arsenicrich iron oxyhydroxides must therefore lie in the ganges source region. The major sources of as pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of ascontaining minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. Arsenic in drinkingwater world health organization. Nov 22, 2002 field injection of molassesamended groundwater produced an initial rise in arsenic concentration fig. Arsenic exists in oxidation states of 3, 0, 3 arsenite, and 5 arsenate cas no. In surface waters, as contamination can also adversely affect aquatic ecosystems, accumulating in sediments and plants. From both the biological and the toxicological points of view, arsenic compounds can be classified into three.
Yet in many places, populations have little choice but to continue drinking arsenic contaminated water and in some. Critical evaluation of a simple arsenic removal method for groundwater of bangladesh. Arsenic levels tend to be higher in drinking water that comes from ground sources, such as wells. Longterm exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to increase risks of skin, bladder, lung, liver, colon, and kidney cancer. Arsenic can also enter water resources through industrial and mining surface runoff that eventually enters groundwater. Arsenic arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found in combination with either inorganic or organic substances to form many different compounds. This manual was developed to explain the mobilization, transport and attenuation mechanisms of naturallyoccurring arsenic in groundwater at. Arsenic contamination of groundwater wiley online books. Aquifers in bangladesh are located at a relatively shallow depth to deeper depth bhattacharya et al. The multivariate factorial kriging results also demonstrated that seawater intrusion slightly affected the increase of arsenic in groundwater, accounting for only 17. Bangladesh, west bengal, india, and sites in china.
Arsenic mobility and groundwater extraction in bangladesh. Arsenic is a metallike substance found in small amounts in nature. Arsenic in groundwater cerro gordo county department of public. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element found in soil and bedrock throughout wisconsin. Arsenic levels in groundwater 50 20 50 10 20 in ugl. Arsenic in groundwater may also be the result of contamination caused by hazardous waste or industries that use arsenic.
There is wide variability in arsenic concentration over relatively small areas figure 2. Sep 01, 2008 critical evaluation of a simple arsenic removal method for groundwater of bangladesh. Sep 09, 2008 provides a viable reference, describing the stateofknowledge on sources of arsenic contamination in ground water, which affects about 100 million people worldwide. An overview of regions with groundwater containing arsenic in excess of 50 gl is given in appendix 1. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on arsenic exposure and health effects, june 1822, 2000, san diego, california. While moderate to higher concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater were found in 107 countries chakrabarti, singh et al. Given the right chemical conditions in the subsurface arsenic can dissolve into ground water used for drinking water. A large source of total arsenic comes from the food we eat.
Arsenic contamination of both surface water and groundwater also is found in many latin american countries, but the full extent of the problem is not yet clear bundschuh et al. Toxic levels of arsenic have been detected in water supply wells in the united states6 and abroad,7 creating a health risk for a large fraction of the worlds population and a direct, superfunddriven need to monitor and measure arsenic for the effective remediation of waste sites. Worldwide occurrences of arseniccontaminated groundwater forms and toxicity. It is a highprofile problem due to the use of deep tubewells for water supply in the ganges delta, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. At some sites, the plume of groundwater containing arsenic at concentrations greater than. Exposure to inorganic arsenic typically occurs through groundwater usedfor drinking and cooking. Pdf arsenic in the groundwater environment prasenjit paul. It is, rather, a brief summary of as pollution in the areas shown in fig. Arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states by alan h. Some sites that might not have needed groundwater treatment to remove arsenic under the former mcl of 0. Arsenite asiii, the reduced form of inorganic arsenic, usually exhibits greater mobility in groundwater than the oxidized form, arsenate asv largely due to the greater attraction of asv to aquifer. Known aquifer types and sources of contamination are also included. The arsenicrich groundwater is mostly restricted to the alluvial aquifers of the ganges delta 3, 6.
Arsenic contamination in groundwater bioline international. The study revealed arsenic concentrations in the groundwaters ranging from 50. Arsenic in new jersey ground water arsenic as is a toxic element that is known to pose a risk of adverse health effects in people who consume water containing it. Bhattacharya and others published arsenic in groundwater of india find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Elevated levels of arsenic can be found naturally in groundwater in some areas of illinois.
Proven alternatives for aboveground treatment of arsenic. Groundwater concentrations in argentina are reported to range as high as about 15,000. The usgs studies local and national sources of arsenic to help health officials better manage our water resources. There has been a substantial amount of research done to address arsenic in groundwater and drinkingwater supplies around the country. Development of lowcost technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater 103 available gravel gravel size passing 34. Focazio abstract arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural andor anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. International groundwater resources assessment centre report nr. Most of the arsenic found in groundwater is either inorganic asiii mainly as uncharged arsenious acid, or inorganic asv in the form of arsenic acid minus one or two of its protons so with a charge of 1 or 2. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water has been linked to negative health effects including cancer. Arsenic in groundwater igrac international groundwater.
Arsenic is widely distributed throughout earths crust, generally as arsenic sulfide or as metal arsenates and arsenides. Arsenic as causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. In india, the geogenic arsenic problem is spread over a large geographical area and arsenic contaminated groundwater has been reported for the states of assam, bihar, chhattisgarh, uttar pradesh, and west bengal chakraborti et al. Figure 1 shows the locations of community public groundwater supplies where, utilizing existing treatment, finished water will likely exceed the new standard unless additional treatment is applied. Arsenic mobility and transport through the subsurface is largely controlled by the interaction of groundwater with aquifer sediments. With contributions from worldrenowned experts in the field, this book explores developments in the transport kinetics, detection, measurement, seasonal cycling, accumulation. Identify the populations most heavily exposed to arsenic. Arsenic can have adverse health effects in people who drink water high in arsenic. In 1997 a project designed to establish the extent of the problem in a sample population was authorized by the government of bangladesh. Development of lowcost technologies for removal of. Development of lowcost technologies for removal of arsenic. Andres sanchez, wrrc graduate outreach assistant arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem in many areas of the world, including arizona. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment. The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the availability, performance, and cost of arsenic treatment technologies for soil, water, and waste.
A 2007 study found that over 7 million people in more. Groundwater pumped through familybased tubewells contained a tot al average of 159. Arsenic is a metalloid which can exist in various allotropes, finding its importance in semiconductors industry, pesticides, insecticides and as well as a wood preservative. Arsenic poisoning of bangladesh groundwater nature. Nov 29, 2016 arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states by alan h.
Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can. The california department of public health cdph regulates arsenic as a drinking water. Arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states. Longterm exposure to arsenic through drinking contamined water can result in a chronic arsenic poisoning. A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in groundwater resources of the united states and limitations in drinkingwatersupply characterizations waterresources investigations report 994279 arsenic in water from 18,850 wells and springs greater than 10 gl 5 to 9. The degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by aforesaid anthropogenic sources is much less as compared to the natural sources. Occurrence in groundwater find, read and cite all the research you need on.
Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout china science. Groundwater contamination an overview sciencedirect topics. Groundwater contamination of arsenic can occur from various anthropogenic sources such as pesticides, wood preservatives, glass manufacture, and other miscellaneous arsenic uses. Arsenic occurs naturally in the soil and groundwater in parts of california and is a known carcinogen that may also damage the developing brains of children and cause other health problems. Whether the arsenic is released from these geologic sources into groundwater depends on the chemical form of the arsenic, the geochemical conditions in the aquifer, and the biogeochemical processes that occur. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options. These compounds occur either naturally or as a result of mining, ore smelting, and industrial use of arsenic. Arsenic enters water sources through erosion of natural deposits in rocks. One exception is in tazewell county, where the tazewell county health department sampled 590 private wells for arsenic in 1985. The safe drinking water act requires public water supplies to stay below a maximum contaminant level mcl of 10 parts per billion of arsenic. Satinder ahuja, in handbook of water purity and quality, 2009. It is also present from industrial output, such as burning of arsenic containing compounds, and agriculture waste byproducts. Proven alternatives for aboveground treatment of arsenic in. In rural communities that rely on groundwater for drinking water, the risk from exposure may pose a public health threat, especially when groundwater pumping can increase arsenic solubility.
In an effort to provide a focused assessment of risk to arsenic exposure from groundwater. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Unusually high levels have been reported in carbonate spring waters in new zealand, romania, the russian federation and the. Longterm exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to increase risks of. It is now accepted that the major sources of arsenic contamination in the groundwater of bangladesh are geological deposits, and its release occurs through natural processes 12,32,33, although a number of anthropogenic sources e. Inorganic arsenic compounds are found in soils, sediments, and groundwater. The maximum contaminant level for total as in potable water has been established as 10. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of as for drinking purposes.
Drinking water containing high levels of arsenic may cause health problems. These impacts include, but are not limited to, cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, kidney, nasal passages, liver and prostate usepa, 2001. Two hundred villages that had already been identified as having arsenic contaminated tubewells were sur. Concentrations of inorganic forms arsenite, as iii and arsenate, as v of arsenic as present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments located in the middle gangetic plain of bihar, india were determined. Organic forms of arsenic are rare in groundwater, so we will ignore them in this discussion. The ironsludge ferric hydroxidewater slurry was either. Although, exposure is possible in the following ways. Arsenic in groundwater exists primarily as oxy anions representing two oxidation states. Arsenic dissolves in water and may be present in groundwater, lakes, and rivers. Arsenic contamination was reported as early as 1938. The contaminated areas lie in the vast alluvial plains and delta of the ganges. A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in.
Most of shallow aquifers depth arsenic as, iron fe and manganese mn. Biological fate describe what happens when arsenic enters the body. Api groundwater arsenic manual attenuation of naturallyoccurring arsenic at petroleum impacted sites publication 4761 february 2011 erms austin office 206 e. Arsenic in groundwater poses ongoing challenge wrrc. Detections were more common and concentrations generally were higher in the west than in the east. Many of the people drinking excessive levels of arsenic are poor andor latino or africanamerican, with a cluster in the san joaquin valley. The trivalent and pentavalent forms are the most common oxidation states. Drinking water with elevated levels of arsenic is a primary exposure route. Arsenic centers for disease control and prevention. Studies to date in west bengal show that vast areas are contaminated with arsenic in groundwater with concentration 10. Pdf on sep 1, 2018, john m mcarthur and others published arsenic in groundwater find, read and cite all the research you need on. Naturallyoccurring arsenic may be mobilized into shallow groundwater by inputs of biodegradable organic carbon, including petroleum hydrocarbons. Aug 23, 20 the solubility of arsenic in groundwater aquifers is controlled by a number of hydrologic and geochemical factors.585 1032 1067 188 1527 921 1103 1399 1062 845 123 1264 668 210 765 579 1510 57 70 1014 164 35 1352 227 260 427 1113 838 1294 1080 1237 383